Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 18, N° 1. Enero-marzo 2024
235
Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo, v.18, n.1. ISSN: 1856-7576
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46502/issn.1856-7576/2024.18.01.17
Cómo citar:
Benkovska, N., Kharchenko, N., Kulbach, L., Rabokorovka, G., & Bolotnykova, T. (2024). Analyzing pedagogical strategies for
personalized learning to compensate for students' learning losses. Revista Eduweb, 18(1), 235-244.
https://doi.org/10.46502/issn.1856-7576/2024.18.01.17
Analyzing pedagogical strategies for personalized
learning to compensate for students' learning losses
Analizar estrategias pedagógicas de aprendizaje personalizado para
compensar las pérdidas de aprendizaje de los estudiantes
Natalia Benkovska
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5857-6991
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Language Training Department,
Naval Institute of National University “Odesa maritime academy“, Odesa, Ukraine.
Nataliia Kharchenko
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4171-593X
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Senior Researcher of the Laboratory of Moral, Civic and Intercultural
Education, Institute of Problems on Education, National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine,
Kyiv, Ukraine.
Larysa Kulbach
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9128-1922
Senior Lecturer, Department of Preschool and Primary Education, Communal Institution of Higher
Education «Dnipro Academy of Continuing Education» of Dnipropetrovsk Regional Council, Dnipro,
Ukraine.
Ganna Rabokorovka
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3226-7239
PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor, The Department of Humanities, Social and Economic Sciences,
Military Academy, Odesa, Ukraine.
Tetiana Bolotnykova
https://orcid.org/0009-0003-2826-2491
Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, Assistant Professor, Department of Health Protection, Pylyp Orlyk
International Classical University, Mykolaiv, Ukraine.
Recibido: 19/12/23
Aceptado: 15/03/24
Abstract
The article is a comprehensive study of current methods and approaches used in modern educational
practice to support students facing educational difficulties. The purpose is to analyze the effectiveness of
individualization and personalization of the educational process in restoring educational losses. The
literature review allows us to cover the existing theoretical frameworks of individualization and
personalization in education. The analysis of pedagogical practice includes case studies and expert
interviews, which provides an overview of successful strategies in real educational scenarios. The article
presents a literature review, including current trends in individualization and personalization of education.
236
In addition, the authors analyze pedagogical strategies to improve the level of learning. The study identified
pedagogical strategies to compensate for students' educational losses, including differentiation of
instruction, use of technol ogy, individual counseling, portfolio and self-assessment, flexible assessment
methods, individualized curricula, team learning, and a feedback system. The study includes an analysis of
the effectiveness of technological innovations integrated into the educational process, as well as the role
of socio-cultural aspects in the successful implementation of individualized approaches, and contains a
statistical analysis of the collected data. The results of the study provide practical recommendations for the
implementation of successful strategies in educational institutions.
Keywords: Individualization, personalization, educational losses, pedagogical strategies, educational
process, education applicants, technologies in education, statistical analysis.
Resumen
El artículo es un estudio exhaustivo de los métodos y enfoques actuales utilizados en la práctica educativa
moderna para ayudar a los estudiantes que enfrentan dificultades educativas. El propósito es analizar la
efectividad de la individualización y personalización del proceso educativo en la recuperación de las pérdidas
educativas. La revisión de la literatura nos permite abarcar los marcos teóricos existentes sobre la
individualización y personalización en educación. El análisis de la práctica pedagógica incluye estudios de
casos y entrevistas a expertos, que proporciona una visión general de estrategias exitosas en escenarios
educativos reales. El artículo presenta una revisión de la literatura, incluidas las tendencias actuales en
individualización y personalización de la educación. Además, los autores analizan estrategias pedagógicas
para mejorar el nivel de aprendizaje. El estudio identificó estrategias pedagógicas para compensar las
pérdidas educativas de los estudiantes, incluida la diferenciación de la instrucción, el uso de la tecnología,
el asesoramiento individual, el portafolio y la autoevaluación, métodos de evaluación flexibles, planes de
estudio individualizados, aprendizaje en equipo y un sistema de retroalimentación. El estudio incluye un
análisis de la eficacia de las innovaciones tecnológicas integradas en el proceso educativo, así como el
papel de los aspectos socioculturales en la implementación exitosa de enfoques individualizados, y contiene
un análisis estadístico de los datos recopilados. Los resultados del estudio brindan recomendaciones
prácticas para la implementación de estrategias exitosas en las instituciones educativas.
Palabras clave: Individualización, personalización, pérdidas educativas, estrategias pedagógicas, proceso
educativo, aspirantes a educación, tecnologías en educación, análisis estadístico.
1. Introduction
In the contemporary educational landscape, ensuring effective learning for every student, particularly those
encountering educational barriers, is a critical imperative. Various factors, including interruptions in
schooling, individual characteristics, and socio-economic factors, contribute to the accumulation of
educational setbacks. Consequently, there is a growing need to focus on pedagogical strategies aimed at
personalizing and customizing the learning experience to actively engage students and address their diverse
needs. The most effective strategies include the use of technology, learning differentiation, team-based
learning, use of flexible assessment methods, etc. Understanding and implementing these strategies are
crucial steps towards fostering an inclusive educational environment and ensuring equitable access to
quality education for all learners, regardless of their circumstances. Therefore, this study endeavors to
identify, evaluate, and explore the practical application of key pedagogical approaches to remedying
educational setbacks and fostering educational inclusivity.
Analyzing pedagogical strategies for personalized learning to compensate for
students' learning losses. - Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo, v.18, n.1. /235-244
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Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo, v.18, n.1. ISSN: 1856-7576
Research goals:
1. To examine current educational trends, identifying the relevance of individualization and personalization
in the context of mitigating educational losses.
2. To analyze various pedagogical strategies designed to individualize and personalize the educational
process and evaluate their effectiveness in making up for educational losses.
3. To explore the practical aspects of implementing individualized strategies, including technological tools,
assessment methods, and student engagement.
4. To assess the extent to which the proposed strategies contribute to the creation of an inclusive
educational environment where each student can maximize their potential.
2. Literature review
Shvardak (2022) explores educational trends in the context of the new Ukrainian school, examining current
changes and challenges in the education sector. Lytvynova (2020) explores the organization of distance
learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and discusses issues related to the organization of remote learning
in secondary school. Marienko, & Sukhikh (2022) consider the organization of pedagogical strategies in the
educational process under conditions of martial law using digital technologies. Tovstohan et al. (2023)
explore leading aspects of the transformation of inclusive educational space in the context of compensating
for the educational losses of younger students. Batsurovskaya I. and Dotsenko N. are exploring the
technology of acquiring competencies by bachelors of higher educational institutions in a digital media
communication environment. Batsurovska et.al. (2021).
In his research, Shyrokov (2021) investigates the learning process in the context of the platformization of
the educational process in conditions of distance and blended learning in school. Yastrub (2021) studies
current issues of school adaptation for first-graders in the context of modern education. Yatsko (2023)
presents an analysis of the elective module in 10th-11th grades of the high school.
Dumitrache, & Dumitraşcu (2014) consider the principle of personalization as the basis for an effective
educational process. The authors focus on the individualization of learning and the consideration of
students' characteristics. Graf (2023) investigates the role of personalization in adaptive educational
environments. The author covers aspects of personalized learning using technologies. Demydenko (2023)
dedicated their research to the possibilities of building a personalized educational trajectory using the
Moodle platform. The article by Denicheva, O. (2018) is devoted to the individualization and differentiation
of learning in developing personality in various educational institutions in Austria.
The article by Quandeng (2023) is dedicated to reviewing the personal learning model and provides an
overview of current approaches to personalized learning. Pedagogical aspects and strategies for using open
scientific services to improve distance, blended, and family learning in secondary school are presented in
the research by Sukhikh (2023). Sakhnovskyi (2013) article focuses on specialized education in Ukrainian
schools and the search for a new model. The essence of teaching strategies and approaches to their
classification were studied by Olendr, & Tsar (2023). Cyphers (2022) investigated the peculiarities of
organizing the educational process in schools in European countries in the face of modern challenges and
threats. The article contains the experience of Ukraine.
Balukh (2022) research is dedicated to psycho-pedagogical approaches to the formation of competencies
for future teachers of primary classes. The article by Kalaian (2017) focuses on pedagogical approaches to
the education of learners in STEM classes. The author considers methods that focus on their active
participation in the educational process. The article by Kulsharipova, et.al. (2021) is dedicated to
pedagogical management in the practice of managing the educational process in primary school. It analyzes
238
aspects of organizing and managing learning in elementary classes. Sidanich, & Zvarych (2020) characterize
the model for monitoring the quality of educational services in secondary schools.
Ovcharuk et al. (2023) investigate the organizational and pedagogical conditions for the use of the
informational and digital environment in general educational institutions. The article by Rybalka (2023)
analyzes the philosophy of the lesson as a psychological-pedagogical unit and its impact on the personal
development of the education recipient. Shi, & Blau (2020) provide an overview of modern learning theories
and pedagogical approaches to ensure the success of all education recipients. The literature review by
Thakuri (2023) is dedicated to promoting innovative pedagogical teaching for meaningful learning.
Lukianova, & Filon (2023) dedicate their research to intra-subject connections as a means of overcoming
educational losses for students in mathematics.
However, the issue of analyzing pedagogical strategies aimed at individualizing and personalizing the
educational process in order to compensate for the educational losses of students has yet to be sufficiently
studied in the psychological and pedagogical literature.
3. Methods
1.
Literature review.
An extensive literature review includes current research, scientific articles, and
methodologies for individualizing and personalizing the educational process.
2.
Analysis of pedagogical practices.
This includes case studies, providing an overview of pedagogical
strategies for individualization and personalization in real educational institutions. It also focuses on
analyzing successful practices and identifying technologies that show high efficiency in leveling
educational losses.
3.
Statistical analysis of data.
A statistical analysis of the collected data using appropriate methods, such
as calculating the empirical value of χ2 based on the results of the initial control. This stage will help to
identify statistically significant differences and trends in the study results.
4.
Comprehensive comparison of pedagogical strategies.
This stage involves the development of
comprehensive comparative analyses of pedagogical strategies, including their effectiveness,
adaptability to different contexts, cost of implementation, and level of acceptance by participants in
the educational process.
5.
Monitoring the dynamics of students' success.
Implementation of long-term monitoring of the success
of students involved in individualized and personalized educational processes.
4. Results and discussion
Individualization and personalization of the learning process are essential strategies for compensating for
students' educational losses. The following pedagogical strategies aim to individualize and personalize the
learning process to recover students' educational losses. Let us analyze them.
Analyzing pedagogical strategies for personalized learning to compensate for
students' learning losses. - Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo, v.18, n.1. /235-244
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Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo, v.18, n.1. ISSN: 1856-7576
Figure 1.
Pedagogical strategies for compensating the educational losses of students.
Differentiated learning
is an approach in education aimed at adapting the learning process to the diverse
needs and levels of preparedness of students. The main idea of differentiated learning is to provide students
with various teaching methods, materials, and assignments based on their individual needs. This approach
allows teachers to consider differences in learning paces, styles, and levels of abilities among students.
Differentiated learning also involves the use of various assessment methods to evaluate individual student
achievements. It creates a more inclusive educational environment where students can maximize their
potential. This approach can be applied at multiple educational levels, from elementary school to higher
education. It considers each student group's specific characteristics.
The use of technologies
focused on individualization and personalization of the learning process becomes
an effective tool for compensating for students' educational gaps. Technological tools (for example,
educational programs that adapt to individual student needs) help to bridge knowledge gaps and enhance
educational levels. Programs based on artificial intelligence can analyze unique abilities and learning paces,
providing personalized learning materials. Technologies also enable the creation of interactive educational
platforms. They promote a deeper understanding of the material and improve academic performance. A
customized approach based on technology can be particularly beneficial for students with different learning
styles and levels of preparedness. The integration of modern technologies into the educational process
contributes to the development of flexible and adaptive teaching methods, leveling educational inequalities.
Face-to-face consultations
become a key element in individualizing and personalizing the learning
process to compensate for students' educational losses. Organizing individual consultations allows teachers
to more accurately identify the personal needs of each student and develop personalized learning plans.
During private consultations, teachers can assess the level of understanding of the material and adjust
teaching to the specific characteristics of the student. Such consultations create a favorable environment
for discussing difficulties and questions, leading to more effective addressing of educational gaps. Private
Pedagogical
Strategies for
Compensating
for the
Educational
Losses of
Students
Learning differentiation
Classification by level of
preparation: Formation of
students' groups based on
their academic level to
provide more precise support
to each student. Assignment
of tasks to students that
meet their individual needs
and abilities.
Use of Technology.
The use of specialized
programs and applications
that allow students to work at
their own pace and adjust the
level of tasks' complexity. The
provision of an access to
online resources for additional
training and individualized
support.
Face to face consultations
Regular individual
consultations with students to
identify their needs and plan
personalized approaches.
Portfolio and self-
assessment
Creation of a portfolio that
includes personal projects,
achievements, and self-
assessment to support
multiple forms of learning and
assessment.
Flexible assessment
methods
Implementation of project-
based assessment methods
that allow students to identify
their unique abilities and
talents. Assessment based on
student portfolios that reflect
their personal achievements. Individualized learning
plans
Development of individualized
curricula for students based
on their interests, needs, and
learning pace
Team-based learning
Involvement of students in
group projects where they
can interact and learn from
each other, taking into
account their unique abilities
Feedback system
Provides frequent and
constructive feedback to help
students improve their
learning.
240
consultations may include applying various teaching methods and using additional educational resources
tailored to the student's needs. Overall, personal consultations play a crucial role in creating an
individualized academic environment, contributing to the successful recovery from educational losses.
Portfolio and self-assessment.
The use of portfolios in education promotes the individualization and
personalization of the learning process. They allow students to document their educational journey.
Systematic self-assessment, included in the portfolio, enables students to consciously evaluate their
progress, identify strengths, and determine areas for further development. Portfolios can consist of various
materials such as projects, essays, and creative works. They allow students to demonstrate their unique
abilities and achievements. The individualized self-assessment, embedded in the portfolio, helps students
work more consciously on addressing educational gaps. Creating a portfolio can be adapted to each
student's individual needs, supporting their unique learning styles. Overall, the combination of portfolios
and systematic self-assessment contributes to more effective tracking of educational losses. It highlights
personal achievements and potential.
Flexible assessment methods.
The application of flexible education assessment methods aims to
individualize and personalize the learning process, considering the diversity of students' needs. Flexible
assessment methods allow teachers to adapt assessment procedures to the individual abilities and learning
styles of each student. The use of various forms of assessment, such as projects, portfolios, and self-
assessment, contributes to a more objective evaluation of students' achievements. Flexible assessment
methods support students in the process of tracking educational losses. These methods allow them to
demonstrate their progress in a more tailored form. A personalized approach to assessment may also
involve considering individual interests and goals and promoting active student participation in the
educational process. Flexible assessment methods contribute to tracking educational losses and create
incentives for self-development and motivation for students.
Individualized learning plans
play a key role in the strategy of individualization and personalization of
the education process, especially in compensating for educational losses in learners. Creating individualized
learning plans allows teachers to adapt the content and teaching methods, taking into account the level of
knowledge, interests, and needs of each student. Individualized learning plans include a flexible learning
schedule and a personalized approach to assessment. They promote a more effective process of tracking
losses. Learners with individualized learning plans can better cope with educational challenges, as learning
is structured considering their unique needs. Individualized learning plans also include mechanisms for
regular reflection and adaptation. They allow quick responses to changes in the learning process and the
needs of the student.
Team-based learning
provides an opportunity for students to work together, taking into account their
individual needs. It aims to individualize and personalize the learning process. As part of team-based
learning, teachers can use differentiated methods and approaches to meet the unique educational needs
of each student. Group learning projects promote mutual understanding, collaboration, and knowledge
sharing, which contributes to more effective learning loss management. Collective educational research can
become a platform for sharing experiences and mutual support, strengthening individual efforts to
overcome educational losses. Teamwork also creates a favorable environment for sharing learning
strategies and techniques. This can have a positive impact on the success of learning loss management.
Team-based learning focused on individualization contributes to the formation of an inclusive educational
environment where each student can contribute to the overall educational achievement.
An individualization-oriented
feedback system
is becoming a key tool for compensating for students'
educational losses. It allows us to determine their needs accurately. Personalized feedback will enable
teachers to assess the academic progress of each student, identify weaknesses, and direct efforts to
overcome them. The feedback system can include both formal methods, such as assessments, and a more
Analyzing pedagogical strategies for personalized learning to compensate for
students' learning losses. - Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo, v.18, n.1. /235-244
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Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo, v.18, n.1. ISSN: 1856-7576
informal one, such as discussions and regular conversations with students. Personalized feedback
contributes to a deeper understanding of individual student needs, which is vital for effective learning loss
prevention. Transparency and dialogue in the feedback system create a favorable environment for
discussing improvement strategies and developing personalized education plans. A feedback system
focused on individualization stimulates active interaction between teachers and students. It supports their
joint efforts to overcome educational losses. These strategies can be successfully integrated to create a
supportive and inclusive educational environment that promotes successful coping with students' academic
losses.
A pedagogical experiment was conducted during the academic year 2022-2023 to test the effectiveness of
pedagogical strategies. These strategies are focused on individualizing and personalizing the educational
process in order to compensate for the educational losses of students. The experiment involved students
from 3rd to 10th grades in Ukrainian secondary education institutions, totaling 470 students. The
experimental group (EG) included 234 students, while the control group (CG) had 236 participants. In the
CG, education was conducted using traditional methods.
In the EG, the implementation of pedagogical strategies focused on individualization and personalization of
the learning process was planned to address the educational losses of students. Strategies for
compensating educational losses included the formation of groups based on students' academic levels to
provide more precise support to each student. Additionally, students were given tasks tailored to their
individual needs and abilities. The research team used modern technologies. Furthermore, specialized
programs and applications allowed students to work at their own pace and adjust the level of task difficulty.
Students received an access to online resources.
The school held regular face-to-face consultations with students to identify their needs and plan
individualized approaches. The school also implemented a portfolio that includes personal projects and
introduced project-based assessment methods that allow students to identify their unique abilities and
talents. Individual curricula were developed for students, taking into account their interests, needs, and
pace of learning. Students were involved in group projects where they could interact and learn from each
other, taking into account their unique abilities. Also, there was constructive feedback to help students
correct their performance. The results of the study are presented in Table 1.
Table 1.
The results of implementing pedagogical strategies focused on individualization and personalization of the
educational process in order to compensate for the educational losses of students after the experiment:
calculation of the empirical value of χ2 based on the initial control results.
Score
Percentage
(EG)
Empirical
frequency ni (EG)
Percentage (CG)
Empirical
frequency ni1 (CG)
(ni-ni1)^2
(ni-ni1)^2/ni1
12
3,85%
4
0,95%
1
9
9,00
11
43,27%
45
3,81%
4
1681
420,25
10
39,42%
41
8,57%
9
1024
113,78
9
37,50%
39
5,71%
6
1089
181,50
8
33,65%
35
18,10%
19
256
13,47
7
25,00%
26
46,67%
49
529
10,80
6
17,31%
18
56,19%
59
1681
28,49
5
13,46%
14
56,19%
59
2025
34,32
4
10,58%
11
15,24%
16
25
1,56
3
0,96%
1
10,48%
11
100
9,09
2
0,00%
0
2,86%
3
9
3,00
Total
amount
100,00%
234
100,00%
236
825,26
242
The empirical value is χ2=825,26. The critical value is chosen for the extent of freedom ν=10. χ2емп
χ2кр
means that there are significant deviations between the distributions. It means that they belong to the
zone of significance. It is evident that the introduction of pedagogical strategies aimed at individualizing
and personalizing the educational process in order to compensate for the academic losses of students,
which was carried out in the context of the experimental group, is promising.
The statistical results can be presented graphically in Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Statistical results of implementing pedagogical strategies focused on individualization and
personalization of the educational process in order to compensate for the educational losses of students.
The grades range from 2 to 12 points. This is a wide range, which may indicate a diversity of student
performance. Most students received grades between 6 and 11, showing that most students coped with
the experiment quite well. The percentage of higher grades (11 and 12) in CG and EG is relatively small
(3.85% and 0.95%, respectively). This indicates that the experiment was a challenge for most students.
The grades of 3 and 2 are rare, which may suggest that most students coped with the minimum
requirements. The percentages in the CG are more variable, especially with low grades. This may indicate
differences in the performance of students in the CGs. The most frequent grade is 7, and the percentage
of students in CG (46.67%) is significantly higher than in EG (25.00%).
We agree that recent research in the field of education, conducted by Shvardak (2022) and Lytvynova
(2020), reveals the current trends and challenges facing modern education. Special attention to pedagogical
strategies in the context of the implementation of digital technologies, as shown by the studies of Marienko
& Sukhikh (2022), Tovstohan et al. (2023), is an important step in solving the problem of educational losses
among younger students. We also agree that the studies of Shyrokov (2021), Yastrub (2021), and Yatsko
(2023) reveal key aspects of the adaptation of the educational process to modern realities, in particular, in
the context of distance learning and the choice of subjects for study. We partially agree with the articles of
Dumitrache & Dumitraşcu (2014), Graf (2023), Demydenko (2023), which emphasize the role of
individualization and personalization of learning in the formation of an effective educational process.
However, we believe that this aspect can be more deeply analyzed in view of the relationship between
individual needs and general educational goals. We do not agree that the problem of analyzing pedagogical
strategies aimed at individualizing and personalizing the educational process in order to compensate for
the educational losses of students has been sufficiently explored in the psychological and pedagogical
literature. This problem remains relevant and requires further research and discussion.
0,00%
10,00%
20,00%
30,00%
40,00%
50,00%
60,00%
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Percentage (EG) Percentage points (CG)
Analyzing pedagogical strategies for personalized learning to compensate for
students' learning losses. - Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo, v.18, n.1. /235-244